Jumat, 23 Agustus 2013

wah baru bisa kebuka lagi neh blog setelah ilang dari peredaran gara2 lupa paswot nya.. tunggu lagi yee berita,info dan lainnya yang akan datang

Jumat, 08 April 2011



Nama : Arifinarto
NPM : 11207502
Kelas : 4EA10


Exercise 11
1. The subject (of the lectures) was quite interesting. (C)
2. The supplies (for the camping trip) needs to be packed. (I)
3. The chairs under the table in the dinning room is quite comfortable. (C)
4. The players on the winning team in the competition put forth a lot of effort. (I)
5. The food for the guests at the party are on the long tables. (C)
6. The cost of the clothes was higher than i had expected. (C)
7. The rugs in the front rooms of the house are going to be washed today. (C)
8. The waiters and waitresses in this restaurant always serves the food efficiently. (C)
9. The lights in the corner of the room need to be kept on all night. (I)
10. The meeting of the members of the council begins at 3:00 in the afternoon. (C)
Exercise 12
1. Half of the students in the class arrive early. (C)
2. Some of the fruit are rotten. (I)
3. All of the next chapter contains very important information. (C)
4. Most of the people in the room is paying attention. (C)
5. Part of the soup is left on the stove. (C)
6. Some of the movie were just too violent for me. (I)
7. All of the details in the report need to be checked. (I)
8. Most of the money is needed to pay the bills. (C)
9. The first half of the class consists of lecture and note-talking. (I)
10. Some of the questions on the test was impossible to answer. (I)
Exercise 13
1. Anybody are welcome at the party. (I)
2. No one here is afraid of skydiving. (C)
3. Everyone in the world needs love and respect. (I)
4. Someone have to clean up the house. (C)
5. Each plant in the garden appear healty and strong. (C
6. You should understand that anything is possible. (I)
7. Everthing in the salad are good for you. (C)
8. Nobody in the class have completed the assignment on time. (C)
9. I am sure that every detail have been considered. ©
10. Everybody know the rules, but somebody is not following them. (I)
Exercise (Sklills 11-13)
1. The receptionist in the entryway to the offices is able to answer your questions. (C)
2. All of the information in the documents are important. (C)
3. Anyone in one of the classes has to take the final exam. (I)
4. The coordinator of community services are arranging the program. (I)
5. Most of the car are covered with mud. (C)
6. Nothing more is going to be completed today. (C)
7. The drinks in the pitchers on the table in the ballroom is for everyone. (C)
8. Everybody were told to be here at 8:00, but somebody is not here. (C)
9. Some of the meetings at the conference are limited to ten participants. (C)
10. The sauce on the vegetables in the yellow bowl taste really delicious. (I)
Toefl Exercise (Skills 11 – 13)
1. Nobody know when the process of glass-making was invented. (A)
2. Sugars like glucose is made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. (D)
3. Part of the electricity used in the United States today come from hydroelectric sources. (C)
4. The languages of the world presents a vast array of structural similarities and differences. (B)
5. The rise of multinationals have resulted in a great deal of legal ambiguity because multinationals can operate in so many jurisdictions. (D)
6. All of the east-west interstate highways in the United States has even numbers, while
north-south interstate highways are odd-numbered.( )A
7. When a massive star in the large Magellanic Cloud expoded in 1987, a wave of neutrinos were detected on Earth. (C)
8. Some of the agricultural practices used today is responsible for fostering desertification. (C)
9. Every open space in the targeted area that has grass and a few bushes are occupied by
the white-crowned sparrow. (B)
10. Krakatoa is remembered as the volcano that put so much ash into the air that sunsets around the world was affected for two years afterward. (B)
Toefl Review Exercise (Skills 1-13)
1. Pictograms constitute the earliest system of writing. (B)
2. At temperatures approaches absolute zero, substances prosses minimal energy. (D)
3. The Earth’s one-year revolution around the Sun changes how falling sunlight on one hemisphere or the other. (C)
4. Though sporadic interest in regional dialects has existed for centuries, the first large-scale systematic studies did not take place until the nineteenth century. (A)
5. The waters of the Chattahoochee River fills Lake Lanier. (A)
6. The first set of false teeth similar to those in use today it was made in France in the 1780s. (A)
7. The term “Yankee” was originally a nickname for people from New England, but now
anyone from the United States are referred to as a Yankee. (D)
8. A network of small arteries, mostly sandwiched between the skin and the underlying
muscles, supply blood to the face and scalp. (A)
9. Mesquite is a small tree in the Southwest who can withstand the severest drought. (C)
10. At the end of the revolution, most of the army units of the young nation was almost
entirely disbanded, leaving a total national military force of eghty men in 1784. (D)
1. The pastries in that shop are very expensive but quite deliciously. (I)
2. You can find some change to buy a paper in the drawer, on top of the dresser, or in the jar. (C)
3. The living room was decorated with expensive painting and elegance lamps. (C)
4. He knew that the financial problems were serious, that the situation was not going to improve, and that he needed to get a job. (C)
5. All day long during the trip to the mountains, they were skiing, sledding, or played in the snow. (I)
6. The car needs new tires but not a new enginee. (C)
7. He stops working when he gets too tired to continue or when he has finished. (C)
8. To get to the office, you should go trough this door, turn to the left, and continuation down the hall. (I)
9. For dessert we could serve lemon pie, fruit tarts, chocolate cake, or butter cookies. (C)
10. The sick child needs some medicine, some juice, and to rest. (I)
1. He either lied or telling an unbelievable story. (I)
2. The music at the concert was neither well played nor well liked. (C)
3. He regularly studies both in the morning or in the evening. (I)
4. The play that we saw last night was not only rather delightful but also quite meaningful. (C)
5. He married her neither for her ability to cook nor her ability to clean house. (I)
6. The discussion was both exciting and interest. (I)
7. He withdrew all the money not only from the cheking account but also from the savings account. (C)
8. Neither the teacher or the students are ready to leave the classroom. (I)
9. You can meet with me either in the next few minutes or at 4:00. (I)
10. John is an adventurous person who enjoys not only sky diving but also goes parasailing. (I)

EXERCISE (Skills 14 – 15)
1. The advertisements appeared in the newspaper and on the radio. (C)
2. She is trained as both an accountant and in nursing. (I)
3. We can take either my car or yours to the party. (I)
4. The coffee is too hot, too bitter, and too strength. (C)
5. He not only passed the test but also receiving the highest score in the class. (I)
6. Your ideas are neither more important or less important than the ideas of the others. (I)_
7. The meeting lasted only an hour but still seeming too long. (I)
8. The novel was both emotional and description. (I)
9. Either the counselor or her secretary can help you with that problem. (I)
10.The leaves from the tree fell in the yard, in the pool, the driveway, and on the sidewalk. (I)
1. Ballpoint pens are less versatile but more population than foumtain pens. (B)
2. Riddles vary greatly in both grammatical and phonology form. (A)
3. Blood preassure is measured by feeling the pulse and apply a force to the arm. (B)
4. The moon has no atmosphere, no air, and no watery. (D)
5. The firs matches were too hard to ignite, a mess, or too dangerously easy to ignite. (C)
6. A 1971 U.S. government policy not only put warnings on cigarette packs but also banning television advertising of cigarettes. (C)
7. Demand, beauty, durability, rare, and perfection of cutting determine the value of gemstone. (C)
8. The Harvard Yard, which was Harvard’s original campus, is still a major attraction for boyh students and visiting. (D)
9. In 1862, the American Confederacy raised the Merrimack, renamed it Virginia, covered it whit iron plates, and an outfit it with ten guns. (D)
10. The liquid crystals in a liquid crystal display (LCD) affect the polarized light so that it is either blocked and reflected by the segments of the display. (D)
Toefl Review Exercise (Skills 1 – 15)
1. Most cells in multicelled organisms perform specialization fuctions.
2. The big island of Hawaii, in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, was created by five volcanoes.
3. The sun uses up over four million tons of hydrogen per second but it still has enough hydrogen to last for the next billion years.
4. For Katherine L. Bates, who reached the top of Pikes Peak in 1893. the view provided the inspiration for her hymn “America the Beautiful.”
5. Coal, petroleum, and natural gascous are all fossil fuels. (B)
6. The mass of neutron stars generally range from one-tenth to twice the mass of the sun. (C)
7. Grasses grow in ways that help them to survive being nibbled, chilly, or dried. (D)
8. Most of Hemingway’s novels glorifies heroic exploits such as bullfighting or boxing. (B)
9. Paleographers study ancient and medieval handwriting in order to establish not only its age and also its background. (D)
10.The sounds produced by bullfrogs and toads vary greatly because each species have its own particular call. (C)
1. We have already hearing the good news. (I)
2. She has ridden her bicycle to school every day. (C)
3. I have always believe you. (I)
4. He has find the missing car keys. (I)
5. They have put their money in a savings account. (C)
6. Their parents have allowed them to stay up late. (C)
7. She has never ran away from home before. (C)
8. Have you ever saw a ghost? (I)
9. They have taken three tests already this week. (C)
10. He has offer me a high-paying job. (I)
1. She was study the textbooks all night long. (I)
2. The pie was cut into six equal pieces. (C)
3. Today the teacher is allow the students to leave class a few minutes early. (I)
4. The class is teach every other semester. (I)
5. Tom is bringing some drinks to the party. (C)
6. The sick child was taken to see a doctor. (C)
7. The children are swim in the backyard pool. (I)
8. The diamond jewelry is always keep in a safe place. (C)
9. The teacher is preparing a difficult exam for the students. (C)
10. Dinner is served from 6:00 to 8:00. (I)
1. You should try to respond politely. (C)
2. Everyone must leaves the room immediately. (I)
3. I could sat on the beach for hours. (I)
4. She will asking you many difficult questions. (I)
5. You can look at the book, but you cannot borrow it. (C)
6. He may lies to you because he is not very truthful. (C)
7. He knew that he would forgot the phone number. (I)
8. The wetherman said that it might snowing tonight. (C)
9. Perhaps we could bought a new car this year. (I)
10. This course will satisfy the graduation requirement. (I)

EXERCISE (Skills 16 – 18)
1. We have became good friends in the last year. (I)
2. Your name will be list in the new directory. (C)
3. The new movie is receive good reviews. (C)
4. She must have feel sorry about her bad behavior. (C)
5. They have always given their family many presents. (I)
6. We may be taking a vacation next week. (C)
7. We could have taking a vacation last week. (C)
8. The package might had been deliver by an express mail service. (C)
9. I have not wrote very many letters to my friends. (I)
10. The car should not have be drive anymore yesterday.(C)
TOEFL EXERCISE (Skills 16 – 18)
1. By the 1920s, many radio transmitters had been build. (D)
2. Fish farming has rose in the United States in recent years. (C)
3. In areas of volcanic activity, beach sand may contains dark minerals and little quartz. (B)
4. Cro-Magnon man was names after the caves in southwest France where the first remains were discovered. (A)
5. Lassie, the famous collie who made her first screen appearance in 1943, has always be played by a male dog. (D)
6. A blue bigwig lizard stakes out a territory and will defending females within it against courting males. (A)
7. President George Washington was inaugurates on the steps of the Federal Building in New York City. (A)
8. By 1627, Plymouth had became a viable and growing community of fifty families, twenty-two goats, fifteen cows, and more than fifty pigs. (A)
9. Tobacco was the crop on which the eminence of Williamburg and the prosperity of Virginia were base. (B)
10.Because there may be scores of genes in each suspect DNA region, scientists must identifying and sequence the actual genes contributing to type I diabetes. (A)
1. The Pacific Ocean has the deepest valleys and canyons on the Earth.
2. In the United States, the participation of females in the labor force jumped from 37 percent in 1965 to 51 percent in 1980.
3. Some composers, such as Richard Wagner, have felt that interrupt arias the action of the opera too much and have written operas without them.
4. Water stored behind a dam can used to drive turbines. (A)
5. Our universe may continue to expand as it gets colder,empty, and deader. (A)
6. Every form of matter in the world are made up of atoms. (A)
7. The lens and cornea are supply with nutrients and oxygen by the aqueous fluid. (B)
8. Dodge City, laid out in 1872, owed both its prosperity and its famous to the buffalo in its early years. (A)
9. The amount of the two kinds of cholesterol in the blood have been shown to have an effect on the risk of heart attack. (A)
10. By the time Noah Webster reached his mid-twenties, he had already publish an elementary speller. (A)

Effect of Music on Children

Effect of Music on Children

Music is one of the things that have an influence on human life, ranging from infants to the person becomes an adult. This has been studied by scientists. Research shows that music, especially classical music influence the development of IQ (Intelegent Quotien) and EQ (Emotional Quotien). A child who from childhood accustomed to listening to music will be more developed emotional intelligence and intelegensinya compared with children who rarely listen to music. The meaning of the music here is music that has a regular rhythm and the tones are regular, not the tones "tilted". The level of discipline of children who often listen to music is also better than children who rarely listen to music.

Grace Sudargo, a musician and educator said, "The basics of classical music in general comes from the rhythm of the human pulse so that it plays a major role in brain development, the formation of soul, character, and even human flesh." Research shows, classical music compositions containing tone fluctuates between high and low pitch tone will stimulate quadrant C in the brain. Until the age of 4 years, quadrant B and C in the brains of children will grow up to 80% with the music. "Music really affects people's lives. Music has 3 important parts of beat, rhythm, and harmony", says Ev. Andrew Christanday in a lecture musical. "Beat affects the body, affecting the rhythm of the soul, while the harmony affects the spirit." The most obvious example that beat really affect the body is in a rock concert. Certainly there are no spectators or players in a rock concert that his body not moving.

Everything rocked with a vengeance, and even tends to be uncontrollable. There is a term called the "head banger", which is a twisting movement of the head to the rhythm of the loud rock music. And it followed her body as if without feeling tired. If our hearts are hard, try to listen to beautiful music, which has a rhythm (rhythm) is regular. The feeling we will be more comfortable and easy. Abroad, some hospitals play beautiful songs to help cure his patients. That is a proof, that greatly affect the rhythm of the human soul. While greatly affect the spirit of harmony. If we watch a horror movie, always sounding harmony (melody), heart-wrenching, chilling which we stand. In religious rituals are also widely used harmony that brings the spirit of man into nature worship. In meditation, people hear the harmony of the sounds of nature around him. "Music is good for human life is a musical balance between the beat, rhythm, and harmony", says Ev. Andrew Christanday.

A biophysicist has conducted an experiment on the influence of music for the living. Two plants of the same type and age are placed in different places. One was placed close to the speaker (the speaker) that presents the songs slow rock and heavy rock, while other plants are placed close to the speakers that broadcast the songs are beautiful and rhythmically regular. In a few days there very striking differences. Plants near the speakers rock songs became withered and died, while plants near the speakers beautiful songs grow fresh and blooming. A proof that music really affect the lives of living beings. The universe is created by nature a very beautiful music. Thundering waves of the sea, the roar of the wind in the mountains, and rain is very beautiful nature music. And has been proven, how music influences of nature to human life. If we feel so heavy today, check again your life today. Lest we not listen to music and singing.


Ten Characteristics of Chinese Corruption Ala

Ten Characteristics of Chinese Corruption Ala

Corruption in China has become an increasingly serious problem in the early period of social transition in China, causing severe economic losses and huge challenges for the Chinese government, as well as the spread of corrupt practices to the public. Recently, "Research on Characteristics and Development Trend of China's Senior Official Corruption" carried out by the China National Research Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences (CSA) and Tsinghua University, studying corruption by senior officials above vice-ministerial level during the last 20 years ( 1978-2002) discuss what the root causes of corruption as well as ten characters in China.

1. The number of sentences that varied between the 1990's and 1980's
In the period 1987-1992, the number of officials who examined at the provincial and ministerial level reached 110, where 79 of them checked in the period 1990-1992. However, the number of cases of severe corruption, and officials are subject to disciplinary action by the Party, increased within reasonable limits, especially those subject to imprisonment. Among 64 cases of corruption of senior officials in the database, 31 cases entered into the court and stand trial, in which only 5 cases were sentenced before 1992 and 26 cases after 1992. Related to the amount of money involved, the case in the 1990's higher than the 1980's. Before 1992, no cases of embezzlement and bribery involving a sum of money above 100,000 yuan (U.S. $ 12,081.7). After 1992, among 37 cases in the statistical data, there were 27 cases in excess of 100,000 yuan, with 12 cases involving money over 1 million yuan (U.S. $ 120.816.84) and four cases above 10 million yuan (U.S. $ 1,208,167.99 .) Five cases after 2000 all involve money over 1 million yuan.

2. The incidence of corruption is high (late 1980s to early 1990s)
Among 54 cases with a clear date, 43 cases initiated in the period 1988-1995. At that time, the circular letter from the High Court and Supreme Court decisions issued in 1989, pledged the central government to severely punish the corrupt officials. However, the incidence of corruption remains high at that time and this means that the effectiveness goal of eradicating corruption at all to no avail.

3. The increase of corruption and ministerial-level commissions (the 1980s); high incidence rate in coastal areas (1990s)
Prior to 1992, cases of corruption at the ministerial level and comparatively high commission, began to decline in the 1990s but rose sharply again in mid-decade. Further research revealed corruption at the ministerial level and the different commissions in the two periods. Before 1992, corruption occurs mostly in personal management system at the level of ministries and commissions. Corrupt officials usually go into the economic sphere through a network of government in trade and seek personal gain by abusing their powers in check and give approval. After 1992, new characters appear in which the corruption of senior officials in collusion with private companies, seeking personal gain by abusing their position and power. Previous practice rather the corruption unit, while more recent practice to individuals. In connection with the figures of corruption, when China implemented a policy of reform and openness, the incidence of corruption in coastal areas is higher than in the mainland, where money is involved in coastal areas is higher than in mainland areas.

4. Increased group case
In 1989, cases of bribery Yunguang Luo, vice minister of railways, shocking the whole country, involving a group of people and high-level officials. After that, the claimant agency of China, at all levels, succeeded in dismantling a number of new groups and groups of corruption cases, such as embezzlement and bribery cases of Wang Baosen (former vice mayor of Beijing) and Chen Xitong (former Mayor of Beijing). The case was dismantled by the "Wuxi Xinxing Co.. cases of illegal fundraising "and bribery case Wenying Wu and Xu Penghang, the two top leadership who handle the textile industry, dismantled by" Kangsai case. " Xiamen Yuanhua smuggling case involving a large group of people with two provincial-level officials. Cases of corruption at the local group is more problematic. The last case in Shenyang, Liaoning Province, involving an official at the provincial level, four officials at the ministry level, 11 officials at the division level, and seven officials at the district level. They earn 200 million yuan (U.S. $ 24 as well) through illegal practices. Cases of corruption in a group is usually the result of corruption command superiors. Once the boss of corruption, these groups tend to imitate behavior.

5. Latent Corruption in the 1990's
Average dismantling corruption cases in the period 1980-1992 ranged from 1.43 to 1.44 years. This means that most cases of corruption uncovered very quickly. But in 1992, the period of demolition cases of corruption has become longer with an average discharge of corruption cases in 1998-2002 ranges from 6.31 years. An increasingly long time to settle the case - from the disclosure of corruption cases to the official punishment - to 17 cases (before 1992) spent 0.41 years, including 11 cases decided in that year, while 43 cases have been found guilty in 1992, an average of 1.88 years spent with the five cases decided in the same year and the longest was four years old. Researchers also found that of 17 cases before 1992, corrupt officials are still occupying positions at the time they unloaded on the case of corruption with corruption when they start the activity. While in 37 cases after 1992, officials promoted after the initial graft, this clearly indicates a problem in selection system for Chinese officials.

6. Corruption dismantled through related information
Official statistical data show the corruption case was found through the help of insider reports. But senior officials in particular cases dismantled by other investigations. Among the 39 cases investigated, 19 cases related to the investigation dismantled from other corruption cases, this is around 80.6 percent. Five cases dismantled with information from insiders, while one case removed from the recognition, and the remaining cases are sourced from suspicion. This shows that supervision of the senior officials are very weak, whether by the Party and society. Especially for cases that are found in the late 1990s, many people in the know but not reported, causing the impact and harmful effect on society. On the other hand, the investigation also become an obstacle for corrupt officials.

7. Accepting Bribes
Bribery became the main accused of corruption by senior officials. Of the eight cases that occurred during the years 1980 - 1988, including three cases involving bribery, with items with small amounts, for example, western style clothing, recording equipment and goods of daily needs. Two other cases involving bribes amounting to 20,000 yuan (U.S. $ 2,410) and 12,000 yuan (U.S. $ 1,446). Of the nine cases that occurred in the years 1989-1992, four cases were cases of bribery, ranging from 44.4 percent, with an average value of bribes ranging from 20,000 yuan (U.S. $ 2,410). Among the 47 cases that occurred after 1993, 37 cases demonstrated an act of bribery, which is about 78.7 percent. In addition, there are six people involved in corruption, or about 12.8 percent, with three people involved in embezzlement, or 6.4 percent. Two more people recognize the ownership of the property without a clear source (4.3 percent). Other crimes include behaviors that are not true, dark treasures, and using public money. Of the 37 cases that occurred in the 1990s, eight bribery cases involving amounts more than 1 million yuan (U.S. $ 120,482), with three cases among more than 5 million yuan (U.S. $ 602,410); seven cases involving money from 0.5 to 1 million yuan (U.S. $ 60241-120482); eight cases with 100000-500000 yuan (U.S. $ 12048-60241), 10 cases with the amount of money below 100,000 yuan (U.S. $ 12,048) but no cases with the amount of money under 10,000 yuan (U.S. $ 1,205). Researchers also found from 24 cases in the statistics, there is only one case in which corrupt officials accepting bribes from more than 10 people. Another 23 cases, the average amount of bribery is 3 people, while six other cases involve only one person. Accepting bribes from several briber indicates that most corrupt officials to be careful to accept bribes, to reduce risk. Of the 24 cases, the interference of the executive is one motive to give bribes, including the tender of construction projects, funding, loans, promotion and interference in law enforcement.

8. Family
Through these investigations, found that couples living (mainly wives) and children play an important role in the behavior of corrupt senior officials. There are some cases where officials do not know the bribery case that occurred among family members. Sometimes, family greed sparked official corruption and increase efforts to obtain illegal profits. Officials do not always accept bribes personally, but using a family company to wash clean the stolen money they received. Among the 17 cases that occurred before 1992, three of which involved family members, while the 37 cases occurred after 1992, 19 cases showed that family members play an important role. 9. Infidelity In China in the 1980s, an affair outside of marriage is a serious social problem, but in the 1990s became increasingly serious. Many people think, have a partner outside of marriage is a personal issue and has nothing to do with other issues such as corruption. However, these cases demonstrate that having affair is almost always associated with the first step of corruption. In the incomplete statistics, from 64 cases of corruption of senior officials, 14 officials involved in the affair, this is considered a conservative figure by the research group.

10. The phenomenon of 59 years
The existence of corruption that occurred at the end of the term of office life, 59 years, argued in a research report. Seventeen cases of corruption by officials at the provincial level, or the ministry occurred at age less than 53 years, is around 53.1 percent. From these results affect asumpsi first. Further research found that there were 12 cases where 57-year-old official corruption (1987-1994), of which 6 cases occurred between the years 1992-1993, about 50 percent. To maintain the phenomenon of "59 years", the researchers indicate that the period 1992-1993 is high. Afterwards, the Chinese government to promote faster cadre young cadres, thus reducing the appearance of such phenomena.

Jumat, 31 Desember 2010

Anatomi Bisnis Islami

Mengapa bisnis harus sesuai syariah ? Pertanyaan ini sudah kita jawab pada tulisan edisi lalu. Moga dapat mencerahkan kita semua bahwa bisnis tak lepas dari amal keseharian kita dan amal – apapun itu – mesti terikat dengan syariah. Terikat? Yap, karena kita ingin berbisnis penuh ‘berkat’ dan berkah, agar bisnis kita menjadi salah satu jalan kita meraih kebahagiaan di dunia dan akhirat. Insya Allah. Tetapi, selesaikah sampai di sini? Ooo… tidak! Pertanyaan masih bergulir. Setidaknya, masih ada tiga pertanyaan penting berikutnya. Pertama, bagaimana sesungguhnya anatomi bisnis yang sesuai dengan syariah itu? Kedua, saat Islam tegak menjadi tatanan hidup dunia semenjak masa Nabi SAW hingga runtuhnya Daulah Islam era Turki Utsmani tahun 1924, tak pernah ada istilah bisnis syariah atau bisnis Islami, lalu mengapa kini mesti muncul istilah itu? Ketiga, bisakah bisnis Islami berjalan sempurna dalam sistem saat ini ? Baiklah, teruskan membaca karena kita akan temukan jawabannya sesaat lagi, jadi jangan kemana-mana…

Pertama, Anatomi Bisnis IslamiBisnis dengan segala macam aktivitasnya terjadi dalam kehidupan kita setiap hari, sejak bangun pagi hingga tidur kembali. Alarm jam weker yang membangunkan kita dini hari, sajadah alas shalat kita, susu instan yang “aku dan kau” minum, sepeda motor yang mengantarkan kita ke kantor serta semua kebutuhan rumah tangga kita, seluruhnya adalah produk yang dihasilkan, didistribusikan, dan dijual oleh para pelaku bisnis. Uang yang dibelikan beragam produk tersebut juga – salah satunya - diperoleh dari bekerja pada suatu bisnis.
Contoh di atas menunjukkan betapa komprehensifnya cakupan bisnis. Bila semua cakupan bisnis ini dicoba diterjemahkan, maka akan muncul pengertian yang komprehensif pula. Mari kita lihat.
Kamus Bahasa Indonesia mengartikan bisnis sebagai “usaha dagang, usaha komersial di dunia perdagangan, dan bidang usaha”. Skinner (1992) mendefinisikan bisnis sebagai pertukaran barang, jasa atau uang yang saling menguntungkan atau memberi manfaat. Menurut Anoraga dan Soegiastuti (1996) bisnis memiliki makna dasar sebagai “the buying and selling of goods and services”. Sementara, dalam pandangan Straub dan Attner (1994), bisnis tak lain adalah suatu organisasi yang menjalankan aktivitas produksi dan penjualan barang-barang dan jasa-jasa yang diinginkan oleh konsumen untuk memperoleh profit. Barang yang dimaksud adalah suatu produk yang secara fisik memiliki wujud (dapat diindera), sedangkan jasa adalah aktivitas-aktivitas yang memberi manfaat kepada konsumen atau pelaku bisnis lainnya.
Dari semua definisi yang digali dari fakta bisnis tersebut, dapat disimpulkan bahwa suatu organisasi/pelaku bisnis akan melakukan aktivitas bisnis dalam bentuk: (1) memproduksi dan atau mendistribusikan barang dan/atau jasa, (2) mencari profit dengan menjual, menyewakan, mengerjakan sesuatu, mendistribusikan, dan aktivitas sejenis lainnya, dan (3) mencoba memuaskan keinginan konsumen.
Dari pengertian tersebut di atas juga dapat dipahami bahwa setiap organisasi bisnis akan melakukan fungsi dan aktivitas yang sama. Dengan hantaran pengamatan terhadap definisi yang digali dari fakta bisnis yang ada, sepintas, banyak dari kita akan beranggapan “kalau begitu lalu apanya yang beda? Kan faktanya sama, fungsinya sama dan aktivitasnya juga sama!” Anggapan ini bisa dimaklumi jika kita berhenti sampai di sini. Namun jika kita bedah anatomi bangunan bisnisnya, barulah kita akan melihat bedanya? Penasaran? Mari kita bedah!
Bangunan bisnis Islami jika didalami sebenarnya bisa dibandingkan dalam sejumlah aspeknya dengan bisnis non Islami. Pembandingan ini akan memudahkan pemahaman terhadap faktanya sedemikian sehingga memudahkan kita untuk melihat perbedaannya dan juga meluruskan dalam mempraktikkannya. Berikut ikhtisar anatomi bisnis Islami vs bisnis yang tidak Islami (konvensional sekuler) :

1. Asas : Aqidah Islam (nilai-nilai transendental) vs asas Sekularisme (nilai-nilai material).
2. Motivasi : Dunia - akhirat vs Dunia.
3. Orientasi : Profit dan Benefit (non materi/qimah), Pertumbuhan, Keberlangsungan, dan Keberkahan vs Orientasi : Profit, Pertumbuhan, dan Keberlangsungan.
4. Strategi Induk : Visi dan misi organisasi terkait erat dengan misi penciptaan manusia di dunia vs Visi dan misi organisasi ditetapkan berdasarkan pada kepentingan material belaka.
5. Manajemen/Strategi Fungsional Operasi/Proses : Jaminan halal bagi setiap masukan, proses dan keluaran, Mengedepankan produktivitas dalam koridor syariah vs Tidak ada jaminan halal bagi setiap masukan, proses dan keluaran, Mengedepankan produktivitas dalam koridor manfaat.
6. Manajemen/Strategi Fungsional Keuangan : Jaminan halal bagi setiap masukan, proses dan keluaran keuangan vs Tidak ada jaminan halal bagi setiap masukan, proses dan keluaran keuangan.
7. Manajemen/Strategi Fungsional Pemasaran : Pemasaran dalam koridor jaminan halal vs Pemasaran menghalalkan cara.
8. Manajemen/Strategi Fungsional SDM : SDM profesional dan berkepribadian Islam, SDM adalah pengelola bisnis, SDM bertanggung jawab pada diri, majikan dan Allah SWT vs SDM profesional,
9. SDM adalah faktor produksi, SDM bertanggung jawab pada diri dan majikan.
10. Sumberdaya : Halal vs Halal dan haram.

Jika sembilan karakter bangunan bisnis Islami ini diringkas, maka pembedanya dengan bisnis yang tidak Islami adalah pada aspek Keberkahan. Berkah adalah ridlo Allah Swt atas amal bisnis, yaitu ketika bisnis dijalankan sesuai dengan syariah-Nya. Karenanya, aktivitas bisnis Islami tidak dibatasi kuantitas kepemilikan hartanya, namun dibatasi dalam cara perolehan dan pendayagunaan hartanya (ada aturan halal dan haram). Nah!

Kedua, Mengapa Harus Disebut Bisnis Syariah?
Benar, saat Islam tegak menjadi tatanan hidup dunia semenjak masa Nabi SAW hingga runtuhnya Daulah Islam era Turki Utsmani tahun 1924, tak pernah ada istilah bisnis syariah atau bisnis Islami. Itu terjadi - sederhana saja - karena sistem hidup yang digunakan adalah sistem Islam, bukan sistem kapitalisme atau juga sosialisme komunisme. Jadi wajar saja, kalau terma yag digunakan cukup ‘bisnis’ karena secara otomatis pengertiannya akan merujuk pada sistem yang dianut saat itu. Begitu pula dengan saat ini, jika disebut kata ‘bisnis’ saja tanpa embel-embel apapun, konotasinya pasti mengarah pada sistem yang diterapkan saat ini, maka pengertiannya akan menjadi ‘bisnis kapitalis’ atau ‘bisnis konvensional’ yang pasti tidak Islami atau jauh dari syariat Islam. Ini sama sederhananya dengan dikotomi ‘perbankan syariah’ vs ‘perbankan konvesional’, ‘pendidikan Islami’ vs ‘pendidikan sekuler’ dlsb.

Atas dasar itu, menjadi penting penggunaan istilah ‘bisnis Islami’ atau ‘bisnis syariah’ untuk menegaskan sifat bangunan bisnis yang dilakukan dan memberi efek edukasi pada masyarakat luas bahwa kita memang tengah hidup dalam sistem yang tidak islami.

Ketiga, Bisakah Bisnis Islami Berjalan Sempurna Dalam Sistem Saat Ini ?
Pertanyaan ketiga ini harus dijawab dengan renungan yang dalam sambil mencermati fakta bisnis yang ada di sekitar kita. Mari kita mulai…
Bisnis yang sukses umumnya adalah bisnis yang mendapat ‘berkat” (profit, tumbuh dan sinambung), tapi tidak atau belum tentu berkah. Lalu, kalau pun ada yang ‘berkat’ dan berkah, jumlahnya sedikit dan sulit berkembang optimal, karena terhambat perilaku bisnis sekuler yang menghalalkan segala cara. Mulai dari uang pelicin saat perizinan usaha, kickbak yang diminta saat berhasil memenangkan tender, menyimpan uang dalam rekening koran yang berbunga, hingga iklan yang tidak senonoh. Suka tidak suka, ini semua karena bisnis kita hari ini hidup dalam sistem kapitalistik, sistem yang tidak ideal lagi destruktif…
Bisnis Islami hanya akan hidup secara ideal dan sistem dan lingkungan yang Islami pula. Sebaliknya bisnis non Islami juga hanya akan hidup secara ideal dalam sistem dan lingkungan yang sekuler/sosialis. Itu semua karena - bagaimanapun - aktivitas bisnis akan sangat bergantung pada sistem dan lingkungan ada.
Jadi, apa yang mesti kita lakukan? Cukupkah kita berpuas diri dengan kondisi bisnis syariah hari ini yang tumbuh berkembang tidak ideal? Pengusaha mesti bersatu wujudkan sistem Islam (syariah dan khilafah)? Atau … jangan-jangan kita masih pragmatis saja seraya terus mencari alternatif lain selain Islam? Dan kalau ini yang terjadi, apa kata dunia?

Penemu Konsep Manajemen Bisnis Modern

Sebagai Rasul terakhir Allah SWT, Nabi Muhammad SAW tercatat dalam sejarah adalah pembawa kemaslahatan dan kebaikan yang tiada bandingan untuk seluruh umat manusia. Bagaimana tidak karena Rasulullah SAW telah membuka zaman baru dalam pembangunan peradaban dunia. Beliaulah tokoh yang paling sukses dalam bidang agama (sebagai Rasul) sekaligus dalam bidang duniawi (sebagai pemimpin negara dan peletak dasar peradaban Islam yang gemilang selama 1000 tahun berikutnya).

Kesuksesan Rasulullah SAW itu sudah banyak dibahas dan diulas oleh para ahli sejarah Islam maupun Barat. Namun ada salah satu sisi Muhammad SAW yang ternyata jarang dibahas dan kurang mendapat perhatian oleh para ahli sejarah maupun agama yaitu sisinya sebagai seorang pebisnis ulung. Padahal manajemen bisnis yang dijalankan Rasulullah SAW hingga kini maupun di masa mendatang akan selalu relevan untuk diterapkan dalam bisnis modern. Setelah kakeknya yang merawat Muhammad SAW sejak bayi wafat, seorang pamannya yang bernama Abu Thalib lalu memeliharanya.

Abu Thalib yang sangat menyayangi Muhammad SAW sebagaimana anaknya sendiri adalah seorang pedagang. Sang paman kemudian mengajari Rasulullah SAW cara-cara berdagang (berbisnis) dan bahkan mengajaknya pergi bersama untuk berdagang meninggalkan negerinya (Makkah) ke negeri Syam (yang kini dikenal sebagai Suriah) pada saat Rasulullah SAW baru berusia 12 tahun. Tidak heran jika beliau telah pandai berdagang sejak berusia belasan tahun. Kesuksesan Rasulullah SAW dalam berbisnis tidak terlepas dari kejujuran yang mendarah daging dalam sosoknya.

Kejujuran itulah yang telah diakui oleh penduduk Makkah sehingga beliau digelari Al Shiddiq. Selain itu, Muhammad SAW juga dikenal sangat teguh memegang kepercayaan (amanah) dan tidak pernah sekali-kali mengkhianati kepercayaan itu. Tidak heran jika beliau juga mendapat julukan Al Amin (Terpercaya). Menurut sejarah, telah tercatat bahwa Muhammad SAW melakukan lawatan bisnis ke luar negeri sebanyak 6 kali diantaranya ke Syam (Suriah), Bahrain, Yordania dan Yaman. Dalam semua lawatan bisnis, Muhammad selalu mendapatkan kesuksesan besar dan tidak pernah mendapatkan kerugian.

Lima dari semua lawatan bisnis itu dilakukan oleh beliau atas nama seorang wanita pebisnis terkemuka Makkah yang bernama Khadijah binti Khuwailid. Khadijah yang kelak menjadi istri Muhammad SAW, telah lama mendengar reputasi Muhammad sebagai pebisnis ulung yang jujur dan teguh memegang amanah. Lantaran itulah, Khadijah lalu merekrut Muhammad sebagai manajer bisnisnya. Kurang lebih selama 20 tahun sebelum diangkat menjadi Nabi pada usia 40 tahun, Muhammad mengembangkan bisnis Khadijah sehingga sangat maju pesat.

Boleh dikatakan bisnis yang dilakukan Muhammad dan Khadijah (yang menikahinya pada saat beliau berusia 25 tahun) hingga pada saat pengangkatan kenabian Muhammad adalah bisnis konglomerat.

Pola manajemen bisnis apa yang dijalankan Muhammad SAW sehingga bisnis junjungan kita itu mendapatkan kesuksesan spektakuler pada zamannya ? Ternyata jauh sebelum para ahli bisnis modern seperti Frederick W. Taylor dan Henry Fayol pada abad ke-19 mengangkat prinsip manajemen sebagai sebuah disiplin ilmu, ternyata Rasulullah SAW telah mengimplementasikan nilai-nilai manajemen modern dalam kehidupan dan praktek bisnis yang mendahului masanya. Berdasarkan prinsip-prinsip manajemen modern, Rasulullah SAW telah dengan sangat baik mengelola proses, transaksi, dan hubungan bisnis dengan seluruh elemen bisnis serta pihak yang terlihat di dalamnya.

Seperti dikatakan oleh Prof. Aflazul Rahman dalam bukunya “Muhammad: A Trader” bahwa Rasulullah SAW adalah pebisnis yang jujur dan adil dalam membuat perjanjian bisnis. Ia tidak pernah membuat para pelanggannya mengeluh. Dia sering menjaga janjinya dan menyerahkan barang-barang yang dipesan dengan tepat waktu. Muhammad SAW pun senantiasa menunjukkan rasa tanggung jawab yang besar dan integritas yang tinggi dalam berbisnis. Dengan kata lain, beliau melaksanakan prinsip manajemen bisnis modern yaitu kepuasan pelanggan (customer satisfaction), pelayanan yang unggul (service exellence), kemampuan, efisiensi, transparansi (kejujuran), persaingan yang sehat dan kompetitif.

Dalam menjalankan bisnis, Muhammad SAW selalu melaksanakan prinsip kejujuran (transparasi). Ketika sedang berbisnis, beliau selalu jujur dalam menjelaskan keunggulan dan kelemahan produk yang dijualnya. Ternyata prinsip transparasi beliau itu menjadi pemasaran yang efektif untuk menarik para pelanggan. Beliau juga mencintai para pelanggannya seperti mencintai dirinya sehingga selalu melayani mereka dengan sepenuh hatinya (melakukan service exellence) dan selalu membuat mereka puas atas layanan beliau (melakukan prinsip customer satisfaction).

Dalam melakukan bisnisnya, Muhammad SAW tidak pernah mengambil margin keuntungan sangat tinggi seperti yang biasa dilakukan para pebisnis lainnya pada masanya. Beliau hanya mengambil margin keuntungan secukupnya saja dalam menjual produknya.Ternyata kiat mengambil margin keuntungan yang dilakukan beliau sangat efektif, semua barang yang dijualnya selalu laku dibeli. Orang-orang lebih suka membeli barang-barang jualan Muhammad daripada pedagang lain karena bisa mendapatkan harga lebih murah dan berkualitas. Dalam hal ini, beliau melakukan prinsip persaingan sehat dan kompetitif yang mendorong bisnis semakin efisien dan efektif.

Boleh dikatakan Rasulullah SAW adalah pelopor bisnis yang berdasarkan prinsip kejujuran, transaksi bisnis yang adil dan sehat. Beliau juga tidak segan mensosialisasikan prinsip-prinsip bisnisnya dalam bentuk edukasi dan pernyataan tegas kepada para pebisnis lainnya. Ketika menjadi kepala negara, Rasulullah SAW mentransformasikan prinsip-prinsip bisnisnya menjadi pokok-pokok hukum. Berdasarkan hal itu, beliau melakukan penegakan hukum pada para pebisnis yang nakal. Beliau pula yang memperkenalkan asas “Facta Sur Servanda” yang kita kenal sebagai asas utama dalam hukum perdata dan perjanjian. Di tangan para pihaklah terdapat kekuasaan tertinggi untuk melakukan transaksi bisnis yang dibangun atas dasar saling setuju.

Berdasarkan apa yang dibahas di atas ini, jelas junjungan yang kita cintai itu adalah pebisnis yang melaksanakan manajemen bisnis yang mendahului zamannya. Bagaimana tidak karena prinsip-prinsip manajemen Rasulullah SAW baru dikenal luas dan diimplementasikan para pebisnis modern sejak abad ke-20, padahal Rasulullah SAW hidup pada abad ke-7. Pakar manejemen bisnis terkemuka Indonesia, Rhenald Kasali pun mengakuinya dengan mengatakan bahwa semua bisnis yang diinginkan niscaya juga akan sukses jika mau menduplikasi karakter Muhammad SAW dalam berbisnis. Dengan begitu, kita dapat mengatakan kepada pelaku bisnis, “Ingin bisnis sukses, jalankan manajemen bisnis Muhammad SAW!” Selamat mencoba dan semoga bermanfaat.

Panduan Bisnis Ala Nabi Muhammad

Rasululah Saw, sangat banyak memberikan petunjuk mengenai etika bisnis, di antaranya ialah: Pertama, bahwa prinsip esensial dalam bisnis adalah kejujuran. Dalam doktrin Islam, kejujuran merupakan syarat fundamental dalam kegiatan bisnis. Rasulullah sangat intens menganjurkan kejujuran dalam aktivitas bisnis. Dalam tataran ini, beliau bersabda: “Tidak dibenarkan seorang muslim menjual satu jualan yang mempunyai aib, kecuali ia menjelaskan aibnya” (H.R. Al-Quzwani). “Siapa yang menipu kami, maka dia bukan kelompok kami” (H.R. Muslim). Rasulullah sendiri selalu bersikap jujur dalam berbisnis. Beliau melarang para pedagang meletakkan barang busuk di sebelah bawah dan barang baru di bagian atas.

Kedua, kesadaran tentang signifikansi sosial kegiatan bisnis. Pelaku bisnis menurut Islam, tidak hanya sekedar mengejar keuntungan sebanyak-banyaknya, sebagaimana yang diajarkan Bapak ekonomi kapitalis, Adam Smith, tetapi juga berorientasi kepada sikap ta’awun (menolong orang lain) sebagai implikasi sosial kegiatan bisnis. Tegasnya, berbisnis, bukan mencari untung material semata, tetapi didasari kesadaran memberi kemudahan bagi orang lain dengan menjual barang.

Ketiga, tidak melakukan sumpah palsu. Nabi Muhammad saw sangat intens melarang para pelaku bisnis melakukan sumpah palsu dalam melakukan transaksi bisnis Dalam sebuah hadis riwayat Bukhari, Nabi bersabda, “Dengan melakukan sumpah palsu, barang-barang memang terjual, tetapi hasilnya tidak berkah”. Dalam hadis riwayat Abu Zar, Rasulullah saw mengancam dengan azab yang pedih bagi orang yang bersumpah palsu dalam bisnis, dan Allah tidak akan memperdulikannya nanti di hari kiamat (H.R. Muslim). Praktek sumpah palsu dalam kegiatan bisnis saat ini sering dilakukan, karena dapat meyakinkan pembeli, dan pada gilirannya meningkatkan daya beli atau pemasaran. Namun, harus disadari, bahwa meskipun keuntungan yang diperoleh berlimpah, tetapi hasilnya tidak berkah.

Keempat, ramah-tamah. Seorang palaku bisnis, harus bersikap ramah dalam melakukan bisnis. Nabi Muhammad Saw mengatakan, “Allah merahmati seseorang yang ramah dan toleran dalam berbisnis” (H.R. Bukhari dan Tarmizi).

Kelima, tidak boleh berpura-pura menawar dengan harga tinggi, agar orang lain tertarik membeli dengan harga tersebut. Sabda Nabi Muhammad, “Janganlah kalian melakukan bisnis najsya (seorang pembeli tertentu, berkolusi dengan penjual untuk menaikkan harga, bukan dengan niat untuk membeli, tetapi agar menarik orang lain untuk membeli).

Keenam, tidak boleh menjelekkan bisnis orang lain, agar orang membeli kepadanya. Nabi Muhammad Saw bersabda, “Janganlah seseorang di antara kalian menjual dengan maksud untuk menjelekkan apa yang dijual oleh orang lain” (H.R. Muttafaq ‘alaih).

Ketujuh, tidak melakukan ihtikar. Ihtikar ialah (menumpuk dan menyimpan barang dalam masa tertentu, dengan tujuan agar harganya suatu saat menjadi naik dan keuntungan besar pun diperoleh). Rasulullah melarang keras perilaku bisnis semacam itu.

Kedelapan, takaran, ukuran dan timbangan yang benar. Dalam perdagangan, timbangan yang benar dan tepat harus benar-benar diutamakan. Firman Allah: “Celakalah bagi orang yang curang, yaitu orang yang apabila menerima takaran dari orang lain, mereka minta dipenuhi, dan apabila mereka menakar atau menimbang untuk orang lain, mereka mengurangi” ( QS. 83: 112).

Kesembilan, Bisnis tidak boleh menggangu kegiatan ibadah kepada Allah. Firman Allah, “Orang yang tidak dilalaikan oleh bisnis lantaran mengingat Allah, dan dari mendirikan shalat dan membayar zakat. Mereka takut kepada suatu hari yang hari itu, hati dan penglihatan menjadi goncang”.

Kesepuluh, membayar upah sebelum kering keringat karyawan. Nabi Muhammad Saw bersabda, “Berikanlah upah kepada karyawan, sebelum kering keringatnya”. Hadist ini mengindikasikan bahwa pembayaran upah tidak boleh ditunda-tunda. Pembayaran upah harus sesuai dengan kerja yang dilakuan.

Kesebelas, tidak monopoli. Salah satu keburukan sistem ekonomi kapitalis ialah melegitimasi monopoli dan oligopoli. Contoh yang sederhana adalah eksploitasi (penguasaan) individu tertentu atas hak milik sosial, seperti air, udara dan tanah dan kandungan isinya seperti barang tambang dan mineral. Individu tersebut mengeruk keuntungan secara pribadi, tanpa memberi kesempatan kepada orang lain. Ini dilarang dalam Islam.
Keduabelas, tidak boleh melakukan bisnis dalam kondisi eksisnya bahaya (mudharat) yang dapat merugikan dan merusak kehidupan individu dan sosial. Misalnya, larangan melakukan bisnis senjata di saat terjadi chaos (kekacauan) politik. Tidak boleh menjual barang halal, seperti anggur kepada produsen minuman keras, karena ia diduga keras, mengolahnya menjadi miras. Semua bentuk bisnis tersebut dilarang Islam karena dapat merusak esensi hubungan sosial yang justru harus dijaga dan diperhatikan secara cermat.

Ketigabelas, komoditi bisnis yang dijual adalah barang yang suci dan halal, bukan barang yang haram, seperti babi, anjing, minuman keras, ekstasi, dsb. Nabi Muhammad Saw bersabda, “Sesungguhnya Allah mengharamkan bisnis miras, bangkai, babi dan “patung-patung” (H.R. Jabir).

Keempatbelas, bisnis dilakukan dengan suka rela, tanpa paksaan. Firman Allah, “Hai orang-orang yang beriman, janganlah kamu saling memakan harta sesamamu dengan cara yang batil, kecuali dengan jalan bisnis yang berlaku dengan suka-sama suka di antara kamu” (QS. 4: 29).

Kelimabelas, Segera melunasi kredit yang menjadi kewajibannya. Rasulullah memuji seorang muslim yang memiliki perhatian serius dalam pelunasan hutangnya. Sabda Nabi Saw, “Sebaik-baik kamu, adalah orang yang paling segera membayar hutangnya” (H.R. Hakim).

Keenambelas, Memberi tenggang waktu apabila pengutang (kreditor) belum mampu membayar. Sabda Nabi Saw, “Barang siapa yang menangguhkan orang yang kesulitan membayar hutang atau membebaskannya, Allah akan memberinya naungan di bawah naunganNya pada hari yang tak ada naungan kecuali naungan-Nya” (H.R. Muslim).

Ketujuhbelas, bahwa bisnis yang dilaksanakan bersih dari unsur riba. Firman Allah, “Hai orang-orang yang beriman, tinggalkanlah sisa-sisa riba jika kamu beriman (QS. al-Baqarah:: 278) Pelaku dan pemakan riba dinilai Allah sebagai orang yang kesetanan (QS. 2: 275). Oleh karena itu Allah dan Rasulnya mengumumkan perang terhadap riba.

Demikianlah sebagian etika bisnis dalam perspektif Islam yang sempat diramu dari sumber ajaran Islam, baik yang bersumber dari al-Qur’an maupun Sunnah.